acronym: A phrase made by combining among the beginning letter or teams of letters from a variety of phrases. For example, STEM is an acronym for Science, Expertise, Engineering and Math. Radar is an acronym for RAdio Detection And Ranging. Even laser is an acronym for Mild Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.
activate: (in biology) To activate, as with a gene or chemical response.
biologist: A scientist concerned within the research of residing issues.
blood sugar: The physique circulates glucose, a sort of easy sugar, in blood to tissues of the physique the place it will likely be used as a gas. The physique extracts this straightforward sugar from breakdown of sugars and starches. Nevertheless, some ailments, most notably diabetes, can permit an unhealthy focus of this sugar to construct up in blood.
brown fats: A sort of saved fats that the physique burns when it senses a robust must warmth up the physique (owing to being in a chilly setting). It takes its identify from the precise coloration of the fats, which isn’t mild coloured because the extra widespread “white” physique fats is. The storage of extra energy as this kind of fats, and its later use by the physique, are managed by nervous system.
cell: The smallest structural and useful unit of an organism. Sometimes too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their measurement, animals are made from anyplace from 1000’s to trillions of cells. Most organisms, comparable to yeasts, molds, micro organism and a few algae, are composed of just one cell.
chemical: A substance fashioned from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a hard and fast proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to 1 oxygen atom. Its chemical method is H2O. Chemical additionally may be an adjective to explain properties of supplies which are the results of numerous reactions between totally different compounds.
chemical sign: A message made up of molecules that get despatched from one place to a different. Micro organism and a few animals use these alerts to speak.
CRISPR: An abbreviation — pronounced crisper — for the time period “clustered repeatedly interspaced brief palindromic repeats.” These are items of RNA, an information-carrying molecule. They will information an enzyme, known as Cas9, to chop via genetic materials like a scissors. On this method, they will edit — or alter — particular genes in order that they will then research how these genes works, restore harm to damaged genes, insert new genes or disable dangerous ones.
deciliter: One-tenth of a liter (equal to three.4 fluid ounces or 6.7 tablespoons).
develop: To emerge or to make come into being, both naturally or via human intervention, comparable to by manufacturing. (in biology) To develop as an organism from conception via maturity, usually present process adjustments in chemistry, measurement, psychological maturity, measurement or generally even form.
diabetes: A illness the place the physique both makes too little of the hormone insulin (referred to as sort 1 illness) or ignores the presence of an excessive amount of insulin when it’s current (referred to as sort 2 diabetes).
eating regimen: (n.) The meals and liquids ingested by an animal to supply the vitamin it must develop and preserve well being.
DNA: (brief for deoxyribonucleic acid) A protracted, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most residing cells that carries genetic directions. It’s constructed on a spine of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all residing issues, from vegetation and animals to microbes, these directions inform cells which molecules to make.
fats: A pure oily or greasy substance occurring in vegetation and in animal our bodies, particularly when deposited as a layer underneath the pores and skin or round sure organs. Fats’s main position is as an vitality reserve. Fats additionally is an important nutrient, although it may be dangerous if consumed in extreme quantities.
gene: (adj. genetic) A section of DNA that codes, or holds directions, for a cell’s manufacturing of a protein. Offspring inherit genes from their mother and father. Genes affect how an organism appears to be like and behaves.
gene enhancing: The deliberate introduction of adjustments to genes by researchers.
glucose: A easy sugar that is a vital vitality supply in residing organisms. As an vitality supply shifting via the bloodstream, it is called “blood sugar.” It’s half of the molecule that makes up desk sugar (also called sucrose).
immune: (adj.) Having to do with immunity.
immune system: The gathering of cells and their responses that assist the physique struggle off infections and cope with international substances that will provoke allergy symptoms.
innovation: (v. to innovate; adj. progressive) An adaptation or enchancment to an current thought, course of or product that’s new, intelligent, more practical or extra sensible.
kidney: Every in a pair of organs in mammals that filters blood and produces urine.
mammal: A warm-blooded animal distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for feeding their younger, and (sometimes) the bearing of reside younger.
metabolism: (adj. metabolic) The set of life-sustaining chemical reactions that happen inside cells and larger constructions, comparable to organs. These reactions allow organisms to develop, reproduce, transfer and in any other case reply to their environments.
mitochondria: (sing. mitochondrion) Buildings in all cells (besides micro organism and archaea) that break down vitamins, changing them right into a type of vitality referred to as ATP.
molecule: An electrically impartial group of atoms that represents the smallest attainable quantity of a chemical compound. Molecules may be made from single forms of atoms or of various varieties. For instance, the oxygen within the air is made from two oxygen atoms (O2), however water is made from two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).
nerve: A protracted, delicate fiber that transmits alerts throughout the physique of an animal. An animal’s spine incorporates many nerves, a few of which management the motion of its legs or fins, and a few of which convey sensations comparable to sizzling, chilly or ache.
weight problems: (adj. overweight) Excessive chubby. Weight problems is related to a variety of well being issues, together with sort 2 diabetes and hypertension.
organ: (in biology) Varied elements of an organism that carry out a number of specific features. For example, an ovary is an organ that makes eggs, the mind is an organ that is smart of nerve alerts and a plant’s roots are organs that absorb vitamins and moisture.
physiology: The department of biology that offers with the on a regular basis features of residing organisms and the way their elements perform. Scientists who work on this discipline are referred to as physiologists.
protein: A compound created from a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are an important a part of all residing organisms. They type the premise of residing cells, muscle and tissues; in addition they do the work within cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try to struggle infections. Medicines incessantly work by latching onto proteins.
rodent: A mammal of the order Rodentia, a gaggle that features mice, rats, squirrels, guinea pigs, hamsters and porcupines.
species: A gaggle of comparable organisms able to producing offspring that may survive and reproduce.
uncomfortable side effects: Unintended issues or hurt attributable to a process or therapy.
know-how: The appliance of scientific data for sensible functions, particularly in business — or the gadgets, processes and methods that consequence from these efforts.
tissue: Made from cells, it’s any of the distinct forms of supplies that make up animals, vegetation or fungi. Cells inside a tissue work as a unit to carry out a selected perform in residing organisms. Totally different organs of the human physique, as an illustration, usually are created from many various kinds of tissues.
transplant: (in drugs) The substitute of organs, tissues or cells with these from one other organism. Additionally it is a time period for the fabric that can be moved.