amphipod: An order of water-dwelling crustaceans associated to lobsters, shrimp, and krill. Amphipods vaguely resemble shrimp. Most sorts are lower than one centimeter (0.4 inch) lengthy.

Arctic: A area that falls inside the Arctic Circle. The sting of that circle is outlined because the northernmost level at which the solar is seen on the northern winter solstice and the southernmost level at which the midnight solar could be seen on the northern summer time solstice. The excessive Arctic is that almost all northerly third of this area. It’s a area dominated by snow cowl a lot of the 12 months.

micro organism: (singular: bacterium) Single-celled organisms. These dwell practically in every single place on Earth, from the underside of the ocean to inside different residing organisms (similar to crops and animals). Micro organism are one of many three domains of life on Earth.

biologist: A scientist concerned within the research of residing issues.

cell: The smallest structural and useful unit of an organism. Sometimes too small to see with the unaided eye, it consists of a watery fluid surrounded by a membrane or wall. Relying on their measurement, animals are made from wherever from 1000’s to trillions of cells. Most organisms, similar to yeasts, molds, micro organism and a few algae, are composed of just one cell.

chemical: A substance shaped from two or extra atoms that unite (bond) in a hard and fast proportion and construction. For instance, water is a chemical made when two hydrogen atoms bond to at least one oxygen atom. Its chemical formulation is H2O. Chemical additionally could be an adjective to explain properties of supplies which are the results of numerous reactions between totally different compounds.

decomposition: The method by which compounds in once-living issues are damaged down and returned to the setting; the method by which one thing decays or rots.

defecate: To discharge strong waste from the physique.

dissolve: To show a strong right into a liquid and disperse it into that beginning liquid. (For example, sugar or salt crystals, that are solids, will dissolve into water. Now the crystals are gone and the answer is a totally dispersed mixture of the liquid type of the sugar or salt in water.)

DNA: (brief for deoxyribonucleic acid) A protracted, double-stranded and spiral-shaped molecule inside most residing cells that carries genetic directions. It’s constructed on a spine of phosphorus, oxygen, and carbon atoms. In all residing issues, from crops and animals to microbes, these directions inform cells which molecules to make.

ecologist: A scientist who works in a department of biology that offers with the relations of organisms to at least one one other and to their bodily environment.

ecosystem: A bunch of interacting residing organisms — together with microorganisms, crops and animals — and their bodily setting inside a selected local weather. Examples embody tropical reefs, rainforests, alpine meadows and polar tundra. The time period may also be utilized to parts that make up some a man-made setting, similar to an organization, classroom or the web.

setting: The sum of all the issues that exist round some organism or the method and the situation these issues create. Setting might seek advice from the climate and ecosystem through which some animal lives, or, maybe, the temperature and humidity (and even the placement of issues within the neighborhood of an merchandise of curiosity).

enzymes: Molecules made by residing issues to hurry up chemical reactions.

flame retardants: Chemical coatings added to merchandise, similar to pyjamas, plastics, foam and furnishings, to suppress or delay how briskly they could burn in a hearth.

forest: An space of land lined largely with timber and different woody crops.

freshwater: A noun or adjective that describes our bodies of water with very low concentrations of salt. It’s the kind of water used for ingesting and making up most inland lakes, ponds, rivers and streams, in addition to groundwater.

gills: The respiratory organ of most aquatic animals that filters oxygen out of water. Fish and different water-dwelling animals use gills to breathe.

gizzard: A thick-walled a part of a chook’s abdomen that’s used for grinding meals. It could include grit or small stones to assist the chook break down robust seeds.

intestine: An off-the-cuff time period for the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the intestines.

krill: Tiny shrimplike crustaceans that dwell within the ocean and are the primary meals supply of some whales.

larvae: Immature bugs which have a distinctly totally different kind (physique form) than when they’re adults. For example, caterpillars are larval butterflies and maggots are larval flies. (Generally this time period is also used to explain such a stage within the growth of fish, frogs and different animals.)

leach: (in geology and chemistry) The method by which water (typically within the type of rain) removes soluble minerals or different chemical substances from a strong, similar to rock, or from sand, soil, bones, trash or ash.

marine biologist: A scientist who research creatures that dwell in ocean water, from micro organism and shellfish to kelp and whales.

microbe: Brief for microorganism. A residing factor that’s too small to see with the unaided eye, together with micro organism, some fungi and lots of different organisms similar to amoebas. Most include a single cell.

microplastic: A small piece of plastic, 5 millimeters (0.2 inch) or smaller in measurement. Microplastics might have been produced at that small measurement, or their measurement could also be the results of the breakdown of water bottles, plastic baggage or different issues that started off bigger.

microscopic: An adjective for issues too small to be seen by the unaided eye. It takes a microscope to view objects this small, similar to micro organism or different one-celled organisms.

mineral: Crystal-forming substances that make up rock, similar to quartz, apatite or numerous carbonates. Most rocks include a number of totally different minerals mish-mashed collectively. A mineral often is strong and steady at room temperatures and has a particular formulation, or recipe (with atoms occurring in sure proportions) and a particular crystalline construction (that means that its atoms are organized in common three-dimensional patterns). (in physiology) The identical chemical substances which are wanted by the physique to make and feed tissues to keep up well being.

mite: An invertebrate belonging to the broad group of animals referred to as arachnids, which additionally embody spiders and ticks. None of those are bugs, though like bugs they belong to the bigger umbrella group, known as arthropods (named for his or her members’ segmented legs).

nematode: A kind of roundworm, often present in soil, that can also dwell inside different creatures as a parasite. It’s often fairly small, with no eyes, ears or nostril. Nonetheless, the occasional species can develop as much as a meter lengthy.

nitrogen: A colorless, odorless and nonreactive gaseous ingredient that kinds about 78 p.c of Earth’s ambiance. Its scientific image is N. Nitrogen is launched within the type of nitrogen oxides as fossil fuels burn. It is available in two steady kinds. Each have 14 protons within the nucleus. However one has 14 neutrons in that nucleus; the opposite has 15. For that distinction, they’re recognized, respectively, as nitrogen-14 and nitrogen-15 (or 14N and 15N).

nutrient: A vitamin, mineral, fats, carbohydrate or protein {that a} plant, animal or different organism requires as a part of its meals in an effort to survive.

organism: Any residing factor, from elephants and crops to micro organism and different varieties of single-celled life.

particle: A minute quantity of one thing.

plastic: Any of a collection of supplies which are simply deformable; or artificial supplies which have been made out of polymers (lengthy strings of some building-block molecule) that are usually light-weight, cheap and proof against degradation.

prey: (n.) Animal species eaten by others.

protein: A compound made out of a number of lengthy chains of amino acids. Proteins are an important a part of all residing organisms. They kind the premise of residing cells, muscle and tissues; in addition they do the work inside cells. Among the many better-known, stand-alone proteins are the hemoglobin (in blood) and the antibodies (additionally in blood) that try to struggle infections. Medicines incessantly work by latching onto proteins.

resin: A sticky, typically fragrant substance, typically secreted by crops. It could even be the viscous beginning ingredient for some plastics that can harden when heated or handled with mild.

squid: A member of the cephalopod household (which additionally comprises octopuses and cuttlefish). These predatory animals, which aren’t fish, include eight arms, no bones, two tentacles that catch meals and an outlined head. The animal breathes via gills. It swims by expelling jets of water from beneath its head after which waving finlike tissue that’s a part of its mantle, a muscular organ. Like an octopus, it could masks its presence by releasing a cloud of “ink.”

floor space: The world of some materials’s floor. Basically, smaller supplies and ones with rougher or extra convoluted surfaces have a higher exterior floor space — per unit mass — than bigger gadgets or ones with smoother exteriors. That turns into necessary when chemical, organic or bodily processes happen on a floor.

poisonous: Toxic or capable of hurt or kill cells, tissues or complete organisms. The measure of threat posed by such a poison is its toxicity.

zinc: A metallic ingredient that in its pure kind is ductile (simply deformed) and that’s an important micronutrient in crops and animals.



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