A fossil discovery in New Zealand has revealed a brand new species of monk seal that after referred to as Australasia house. We introduce the three million-year-old seal, Eomonachus belegaerensis, in a paper printed in the present day within the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Eomonachus is the primary monk seal species, dwelling or extinct, ever discovered within the southern hemisphere — and the oldest discovered wherever.

It’s rewriting all the pieces consultants thought they knew in regards to the evolution of “monachines”, a gaggle of seal relations comprising the 2 dwelling species of monk seal, the elephant seals, in addition to sure species of Antarctic seals.

A diagram comparing the size of _Eomonachus belegaerensis_ with an adult human.
We estimate Eomonachus belegaerensis was about 2.5 meters lengthy.
Jaime Bran/Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Creator supplied (No reuse)

On the point of vanishing

Monk seals are among the world’s rarest and most endangered marine mammals. There are fewer than 2,100 Mediterranean and Hawaiian monk seals alive in the present day. The Caribbean monk seal was hunted to extinction by the Nineteen Fifties.

Conservationists are actually scrambling to avoid wasting what’s left of Earth’s final solely tropical seals from disappearing.

A Hawaiian monk seal, and its pup, on a beach.
A Hawaiian monk seal emerges from the surf. That is an endangered species of earless seal (Phocidae household) that’s endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.
Robert Harcourt (Macquarie College)

That mentioned, we might be fallacious to imagine monk seals have been doing simply tremendous earlier than people started exploiting them. How they fared over the previous few million years stays unclear. We additionally don’t know the place they originated, as fossils are few and much between.

Scientists historically thought all monk seals developed within the North Atlantic Ocean. Earlier than the invention of Eomonachus, monk seals had solely been discovered within the Northern Hemisphere.

Actually, most monachine fossils are discovered within the north, despite the fact that a number of dwelling monachines (Antarctic seals and elephant seals) reside almost exclusively within the Southern Ocean.

The surprising discovery of Eomonachus has fully flipped the evolutionary historical past not solely of monk seals, however of all monachines — by inserting all three within the Southern Hemisphere for the primary time.




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A monk seal from New Zealand

The restoration of the primary identified Eomonachus fossils got here within the type of seven skulls uncovered alongside the coast of Taranaki, on New Zealand’s North Island. The fossils have been retrieved by native collectors and donated to the Te Papa Tongarewa and Canterbury museums.

The seven fossilised skulls of the extinct monk seal species Eomonachus.
Erich Fitzgerald (Museums Victoria)

Our group finally named the species Eomonachus belegaerensis. This interprets to “daybreak monk seal from Belegaer”. Belegaer is the fictional sea that lies west of “Center Earth”, the land from J. R. R. Tolkein’s Lord of The Rings trilogy which is commonly related to New Zealand.

However what have been monk seals doing in New Zealand three million years in the past?

Nicely, up to now, southern oceans have been lots hotter than they’re in the present day. And historic monk seals, very similar to their fashionable relations, lived in subtropical waters.

However till this year, few scientific research on extinct monachines had been performed within the southern hemisphere. That is doubtless why Eomonachus eluded scientists for therefore lengthy.




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The evolution of monachines

Following the disclosing of Eomonachus, we determined to re-investigate the evolution of the monachines.

Our analysis signifies this group of seals developed within the Southern Hemisphere in any case. That is in distinction with each idea beforehand put ahead by scientists.

A picture of James Rule holding one of the monk seal fossils.
Monash College palaeontologist James Rule with one of many Eomonachus cranium fossils present in New Zealand.
Erich Fitzgerald/Museums Victoria

If there’s certainly a southern origin for monachines, this could imply the group crossed the equator a minimum of eight instances all through its evolutionary historical past.

Nonetheless, the nice and cozy waters on the equator are broadly accepted to be a thermal barrier which is troublesome for marine mammals to cross.

If previous monachines did soar between each hemispheres, they might have had broad environmental tolerances that allow them do that. And this could have enabled their dispersal all over the world.

It’s troublesome to say conclusively whether or not fashionable seals share this trait, however we do comprehend it’s uncommon for them to cross the equator throughout their lifetime.

Local weather change and seal extinction

So why aren’t monk seals dwelling round New Zealand now?

About 2.5 million years in the past, marine megafauna skilled an extinction event, thought to have been brought on by a drop in sea ranges because of falling international temperature.

Earlier analysis has theorised this alteration in local weather spurred the extinction of many ancient seals within the Southern Hemisphere. This might have included Eomonachus, in addition to different extinct monachines.

This implies the world’s final two species of monk seal, vestiges of what was as soon as doubtless a widespread group, are additionally in danger from local weather change.

If sea ranges proceed to rise, the seashores monk seals rely on for resting and breeding might disappear. Rising temperatures might additionally disrupt food webs, making it troublesome for them to seek out meals.

Whereas the invention of Eomonachus is thrilling, it may also be thought of a cautionary story.



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